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(5) Consume Caffeine/No Caffeine Intake
1. Caffeine consumption
a. Helps with metabolism. Studies have shown that caffeine causes an 11% increase in metabolism.
b. Reduces overeating as the brain signals the body to stop eating
c. Helps with mobilizing fat (moving it out)—send signals to fat cells to move fat out
d. Leads to detox
e. Helps with recompositioning of the body.
f. Most weight, caloric, and metabolic benefits come from 270 mg. of caffeine daily (three cups of regular coffee)
g. Average cup of coffee has 95 mg.
h. Caffeine consumption has been showed to cause a chemical release of a peptide called YY that signals the brain not to eat (one reason it is good during Intermittent Fasting).
i. Caffeine helps greatly with workout performance
j. Chlorogenic acid in coffee (and in supplements and fruits and nuts) decrease hunger
k. Increases RMR
i. 3-11% average
ii. 3 cups per day has more effect
a. 10% RMR boost in obese
b. Up to 29% in lean
2 Non-Coffee Drinkers
a. Those who do not consume coffee may get those benefits elsewhere, such as
i. Natural caffeine pills
ii. Caffeinated water (unflavored)
iii. Tea, etc. (not energy drinks, which often have calories, sugar, and questionable ingredients).
b. Decaf coffee also has great effects on Peptide YY (PYY—Peptide Tyrosene Tyrosene)
i. Considered the 3rd satiation hormone
ii. Delays gastric emptying
(6) Eating Fiber/Not Eating Fiber
1. More fiber intake
i. 30-38 grams for men; 25 grams for women (21 grams for women 51 and over)
ii. OR 14 grams of fiber for each 1,000 calories of TDEE
b. Usually results in more real food/fewer calories overall
c. Since fiber takes longer to leave the stomach, you feel full longer/consumer fewer calories More stomach space taken up so less space for other foods
d. Fiber helps metabolism get boosted. Since fiber is not digested, the GI system works harder when it is eaten, resulting in better increase in metabolism.
e. Gives better GI motility.
f. May take healthy fiber supplement to help fill the stomach for feeling of fullness (as long as it’s real and doesn’t result in loose stools, etc.)—simply supplementing the fiber you eat in your diet.
g. Six grams of soluble fiber (totaling 24 calories) has been shown to have the satiating effect of 260 calories in terms of signals to hunger hormones!
h. Fill stomach w/ 6 cups of veggies first!
2. Less fiber
a. Usually means more processed foods, fewer fruits and vegetables eaten,
b. Less stomach distensibility since other foods are not as large or as space-filling as fibrous foods are. You simply have room in your stomach for more foods/more calories.
c. Processed foods are not as easily recognized by leptin (the satiation hormone), so you won’t be signaled to stop eating as early as you are with fibrous and other real foods.
d. Less fiber can lead to irregularity/bloating/bigger waist.
(7) Eating More Protein/Eating Too Little Protein
1. Adequate protein
a. Revs the metabolism. Research has shown that eating adequate protein can rev the metabolism by 15-30% for a few hours following. (However, carbs and fats only have a thermic effect of 3-10%.)
b. Keeps you full longer. Protein helps you feel full longer because it is slow to digest—and it has been found to signal satiety hormones better than carbs or fats. (Again, big surge in PYY)
c. Reduces muscle loss.
d. Decreases total caloric intake. Studies have shown that people eating 30% of their calories in protein consume 441 fewer calories overall. This could be from any number of things, including
i. More calories from protein means fewer calories from fat and carbs;
ii. Fewer grams of fat means fewer calories since fat has 9 calories per gram;
iii. Fewer carbs overall likely means less processed foods AND fewer cravings, again resulting in fewer calories overall.)
e. Someone who has had trouble losing weight often does well with 35% of their calories coming from protein. (This can be up to 175 grams for someone consuming 2000 calories per day—or .75 grams of protein per pound of body weight.)
f. Adequate protein means a reduction in muscle loss.
g. Protein can replace foods that ghrelin does not respond well to
i. Processed foods
iii. Liquid calories
iv. Fast eating (more a leptin issue)
2. Too little protein
a. Usually means less real foods (protein takes longer to prepare than quick foods)
b. Less satiety since protein is the most satiating macro nutrient
c. Less muscle building (which can mean less calorie burning!)
d. Again, potentially more calories from carbs and fats.
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